Dr. Emikpe B.O.-Research interests

1. Avian diseases, response to vaccination and differential susceptibility of Nigerian indigenous chicken and its ecotypes
2. Ruminant Respiratory pathology in relation to virus-bacterial synergism involving Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV)and Mannheimia haemolytica in West African dwarf goats.
3. Endemic and emerging abortion induced zoonoses and the role of stress on the shedding and pathological alterations of the infections in goats.
4. Environmental toxicity and Wound healing: Safety evaluation of some vegetables and forages: Phyllanthus amarus, Telfaria occidentalis, Vernonia amygdalina, Ipomea asarifolia, Tetracera potatoria, Ficus thonningii and Moringa oleifera.
5. Aquaculture Pathology with emphasis on bacterial diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia spp
 
Current Research Works
1. Detection of some caprine respiratory pathogens using serology and immunohistochemistry: Para-influenza 3, Adenovirus, Respiratory syncytia virus, caprine encephalitis-arthritis virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma capricolum.

 

 

2. The development and evaluation of a combined recombinant PPR and Mannheimia hemolytica vaccine.
3. Vaccination strategies for the control of diseases associated with road transport stressed small ruminants in Nigeria
4. Endemic and emerging zoonoses: Immunohistochemical evidence of agents associated with naturally occurring abortion in Nigerian goats and the role of stress on the shedding and pathological alterations in Brucella mellitensis infection in goats.
5.Dental problems in small companion animals

 Research:

(i)  Completed
 
Respiratory pathology
(a)                The detection of Actinomyces pyogenes infection in goat, bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered trade cattle and sedentary herds in south west Nigeria.
(b)               Isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of apparently healthy and transport stressed Nigerian goats.
(c)                The isolation, load and antibiogram of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasturella multocida from the nasal cavity of transport stressed goats.
(d)               The current status of Peste des Petits ruminantsvirus (PPRV) infection in apparently healthy West African dwarf goats and sheep from selected communities in Ibadan and Eruwa, Nigeria.
(e)                The comparative susceptibility of Vero and baby hamster kidney cell lines to PPRV.
(f)                Disease incidence and type of pneumonia in archival caprine, ovine and canine lung tissues in Ibadan, Nigeria
(g)               The pattern and frequency of pneumonia in slaughtered cattle, goats and pigs in Kumasi, Ghana.
(h)               The pathogenesis and pathology of experimental PPRV and/ Mannheimia hemolytica infection in West African dwarf goat: Clinico-pathologic, Morphometric and Immunohistochemical studies
(i)                 Natural caprine PPRV and/ orMannheimia hemolytica infection: Morphometric studies of the lung and gut
(j)                 Evaluation of intranasal Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine in the control of naturally occurring pneumonia in Nigerian goats: Clinicopathology, lung and gut morphometry, cellular and humoral responses
(k)               The evaluation of different routes of administration of PPR vaccine on the pneumonia associated with caprine PPR virus infection: Clinico-pathology, lung and gut morphometry, cellular responses in the respiratory tract
(l)                 The effect of successive road transport stress and the combination with other stressors on the pneumonic pathology in goats.
 
Avian Immunopathology
(m)             Immune response of broiler to infectious bursal disease vaccine virus using different routes of administration.
(n)               The evaluation of some Infectious bursal disease vaccines on the humoral immune response of chicken to Newcastle vaccination in Nigeria.
(o)               The field and laboratory evaluation of different Newcastle disease vaccination regimes and routes of administration in commercial chicken.
(p)               Evaluation of safety, growth promoting, antiviral and immuno-potentiating activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia  digitata) fruit-pulp extract in commercial broilers
(q)               The effect of levamisole, hydrocortisone, organic zinc and selenium  (Agrastimtm) supplementation on the haematology, humoral and cellular immune response in chicken.
(r)                 The effect of garlic supplementation on the growth and gut morphometry of chicken
(s)                Serological survey of antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, chicken infectious anaemia, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian leukosis, infectious bronchitis, Salmonella gallinarum and fowl pox in Nigerian indigenous and backyard poultry.
(t)                 The suceptiblity of Nigerian indigenous chicken ecotypes/varieties to Newcastle disease, Salmonella enteritidis and S. gallinarum infections: Possible genetic  influence
 
Fish bacteriology and pathology
(u)               The isolation, bacterial load and antibiotics resistant pattern of bacteria from skin and stomach of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ibadan, Nigeria.
(v)               Isolation and identification of some pathogenic bacteria from red tilapia reared in cage-cultured system in two different water bodies in Malaysia.
(w)             The toxic effects of formalin, nitrites and malachite green in Clarias gariepinus and Lambda-cyhalothrin Pesticide in toads (Buffo perreti).
(x)               The nutritional, antimicrobial, gut morphometry and wound healing potentials of onion bulb, walnut leaves included diets in Clarias gariepinus
(y)               The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical detection of antigens in experimental streptococcus agalactiae infection in stressed and non stressed Oreochromis sp
 
Drug interaction and toxicology
(z)                The interaction of chloroquine and other antimalarial drugs on the gastric acid secretion, parietal and mucus cell counts in rats.
(aa)            The mechanism of the haematinic properties of Chrysophyllum albidum in laboratory animals.
(bb)           The interaction of artesunate and Telfaria occidentalis in the treatment of  experimental malaria in laboratory animals.
(cc)            The safety evaluation of some vegetables and forages: Phyllanthus amarus, Telfaria occidentalis, Vernonia amygdalina, Ipomea asarifolia,Tetracera  potatoria, Ficus thonningii and Moringa oleifera.
(dd)          The safety evaluation of some herbs with antidiabetic properties and yoyo bitters
(ee)            The toxic effects of Diazinon in chicken
(ff)             Small bowel responses to enteral honey and glutamine administration following massive small bowel resection in rabbit and dog.
(gg)           Effects of oral administration of nicotine on organ weight, serum testosterone level, sperm characterictics, testicular pathology and fertility profile in rats.
(hh)           The effect of thyroxine treatment, Lagenaria breviflora fruit and  Musa sapientum (banana) peel extracts on ulcer healing in rats.
 
Endemic and emerging Zoonosis
(ii)               Clinical, haematological, serum biochemical and tissue pathological changes associated with experimental infection of Arcobacter butzleri in rats.
(jj)               Serological survey of antibodies to rabies virus in companion and stray dogs in Ibadan and Ilorin, a transit city of Nigeria.
(kk)           Immunohistochemical evidence of agents associated with naturally occurring abortion in Nigerian goats (Brucella mellitensis, Coxiella burnetti)
(ll)               The role of dexamethasone treatment and road transport stress on the pathological alterations and shedding pattern in caprine Brucella mellitensis infection.
Diagnostic pathology and Bacteriology
(mm)       Disease and congenital conditions in captive wild, companion animals and chicken
(nn)           The potentials of essential oils and plant extracts as bioantimicrobialson Gram-negative indicator bacterialpathogens of poultry origin.
(oo)           Hepatic and Renal lesions observed in slaughtered cattle in Kumasi, Ghana
 
 General aspects
(a)                Genetic and environmental factors influencing birth weight and litter size in Nigerian sheep.
(b)               Prevalence and characterization of antibiotic resistance enterococci from human with dental plaques
(c)                The role of Nigerian currency as formite and its public health implications. 
(d)               Contemporary issues and psychosocial aspect of caesarian section in women and the relatedness to the need for nursing care in veterinary practice in Nigeria.
 
 

 

(ii)                              In Progress

 

A)                Detection of pneumonia in slaughtered goat, pigs, cattle and the presence of respiratory pathogens using bacterial isolation, PCR, serology and immunohistochemistry
i)                    Serologic and immunohistochemical evidence of some other viruses and bacteria associated with naturally occurring pneumonia in goats from West Africa (Para-influenza 3, Adenovirus, Respiratory syncytia virus, caprine encephalitis-arthritis virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma capricolum).
ii)                  The causes and strategies for the control of diseases associated with road transport
stressed small ruminants in Nigeria
a)                  Appraisal of the present state of road transportation of small ruminants in Nigeria: The clinical and managemental implications
b)                  The isolation, load and antibiotic resistant pattern of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasturella multocida from the nasal cavity of transport stressed sheep, cattle, rabbits and pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria.
c)                  Evaluation of the pattern of diseases in road transport stressed small ruminants.
d)                 Effect of prior intranasal MH and PPRV vaccination on the pattern of pneumonia observed  in road transport stressed small ruminants in Nigeria.
e)                  The evaluation of a clinical and management approach to the amelioration of problems associated with road transportation of small ruminants in Nigeria
 

 

B)                Studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal pathology associated with experimental

 

 

 

            Mannheimia hemolytica andPPRV in normal and chemically stressed goats

 

(a)                               The immunohistochemical studies on experimental PPRV and combined PPRV and Mannheimia hemolytica infection in goat.
(b)               Comparison of PPR virus monoclonal antibody and hyperimmune serum in the detection of PPR viral antigens in lung tissues from experimental Mannheimia hemolytica and/or PPRV in goat.
(c)                The susceptibility of goats  to various serotypes of Mannheimia hemolytica (MH) from southern Nigeria and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and pathogenicity of those isolates.
(d)               The pathogenesis of experimental concurrent Mannheimia hemolytica and PPRV and pathogenicity of  Nigerian strains of PPRV in goats.
(e)                               The comparative pathology of experimental PPRV and co infection with Mannheimia hemolytica in dexamethasone treated and road transport stressed goats.
(f)                               The association of PPR and abortion in does: Pathology, serology, acute phase protein changes and immunohistochemical detection of antigens in uterus, fetal tissues at different stages of pregnancy.
(g)               The enteral and oral bacterial changes in goats’ experiementally infected with PPR virus.
(h)               The possible PPR virus-Echerichia coli synergism and the pathogenesis of diarrhoea in PPRV infection in goats.
C)                The vaccinal control of co-infection of Mannheimia hemolytica and  PPRV .
a)                  The influence of spacing and frequency of administration of PPR vaccine and Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine on the pneumonia caused  by PPRV and/or Mannheimia hemolytica in goat
b)                  The evaluation of oral and feed based administration of peste des petits ruminants vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus infection in goats.
c)                  Evaluation of routes of oral and intranasal lactobacillus infusion in the control of complicated peste des petits ruminants virus infection in two Nigerian breeds.
d)                 The influence of maternal antibodies to Mannheimia hemolytica on timing and frequency of Mannheimia hemolytica vaccination and severity of pneumonia caused by Mannheimia hemolytica in goat
e)                  Development of a combined recombinant PPR and Mannheimia hemolytica vaccine.
f)                   Immunological response of goats to the recombinant combined vaccine in goat : serology Ig G and A in brochoalveolar, intestinal and uterine lavages, serum. Mucosal immune responses- NALT, BALT, GALT and UALT, T4 and T8 counts, IL and TNF alpha changes.
g)                  Immunological response of goats to the recombinant combined vaccine in pregnant goat : serology Ig G and A in brochoalveolar, and uterine lavages, serum. Kid: serology, Mucosal immune responses- NALT, BALT, GALT and UALT, T4 and T8 counts, IL and TNF alpha changes.
h)                  Experimental evaluation of the protective effect of the combined PPRMH vaccine in goat challenged intratracheally with PPR virus and MH
i)                    Evaluation of the protective effect of the combined PPRMH vaccine in transport stressed goats
j)                    Field evaluation of the protective effect of the combined PPRMH vaccine in village goats: A community based study.
k)                  Farm evaluation of the protective effect of the combined PPRMH vaccine in goats.
l)                    The epidemiology of PPR and its control through the use of intranasal vaccine in derived savanna and rain forest zones of Oyo state Nigeria.
D)                Studies on endemic and emerging zoonoses:
a)                  Immunological and clinicopathological changes associated with experimental infection of Arcobacter butzleri in local and exotic breeds of pigs in Nigeria.
E)                Studies on disease resistance in indigenous chicken:
a)                  Studies on the differential suceptiblity of Nigerian indigenous chicken ecotypes to parasitic infection of poultry and heat stress
 
XIII. Dissertations and thesis:
(a)                Emikpe B.O (1994): Field Observations on Blood and Gastrointestinal parasites of Cattle in Enugu, Oyo and Ondo states of Nigeria. (DVM.)
 
(b)               Emikpe B.O (2000): Immune response of broiler to Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine
              virus using different routes of administration. (M.VSc.)
 
(c)                Emikpe B.O (2009): The role of Mannheimia hemolytica in the pathology of experimental Pestes des Petit Ruminants virus infections in West Africa Dwarf goats. (Ph. D)